The object of research is to extend human knowledge beyond what is already known.
But an individual’s knowledge enters the domain of science only after it is presented to
others in such a fashion that they can independently judge its validity
(NAP, “On Being a Scientist” 1995)
Given the importance of ethics for the conduct of research, it should come as no surprise that many different professional associations, government agencies, and universities have adopted specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics.
The following are name of some ethical principals that various codes address: