Integrity and wrongdoing

Integrity is the qualifications of being honest and having strong moral principles; moral uprightness. It is generally a personal choice to hold oneself to consistent moral and ethical standards. Integrity is regarded by many people as the honesty and  truthfulness or accuracy of one’s actions. Integrity can stand in opposition to hypocrisy.  Integrity is the inner sense of “wholeness” deriving from qualities such as honesty and consistency of  character.

In the book The Servant of the People, Muel Kaptein describes that, integrity starts with that politicians should know what their position entails, because integrity is related to their position. Integrity also demands knowledge and compliance with both the letter and the spirit of the written and unwritten rules. Integrity is also acting consistently not only with what is generally accepted as moral, what others think, but primarily with what is ethical, what politicians should do based on reasonable arguments.

The concept of integrity implies a  wholeness, a comprehensive corpus of beliefs, often referred to as a worldview. This concept of wholeness emphasizes  honesty and authenticity, requiring that one act at all times in accordance with the individual’s chosen worldview.

Wrongdoing:

Evil or improper behavior or action cleared of any wrongdoing . Illegal or dishonest behavior.

Aristotle said in his book, Rhetoric: ‘Thus every action must be due to one or other of seven causes: chance ,nature, compulsion ,habit, anger, reasoning or appetite’.

“The Causes of Organizational Wrongdoing” is motivated by the implicit contradiction between two personal observations.

There are two distinct types of legal wrongdoing: civil and criminal

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